Juan Aparicio (University Miguel Hernández of Elche), Jesús T. Pastor (University Miguel Hernández of Elche) and C. A. Knox Lovell (University of Queensland,).

Abstract. A natural multiplicative efficiency measure for the Constant Returns to Scale proportional directional distance function (pDDF) is derived, relating its associated linear program to that of the well-known outputoriented radial efficiency measurement model. Based on this relationship, a traditional CCD (Caves, Christensen and Diewert) Malmquist index is introduced to show that, when it is based on the new efficiency measure associated with the pDDF, rather than on a radial efficiency measure associated with an oriented distance function, it becomes a Total Factor Productivity (TFP) index. This constitutes a new result, because  heretofore the traditional CCD Malmquist index has not been considered a TFP index. Additionally, a new decomposition of the CCD Malmquist index is proposed that expresses productivity change as the ratio of two components, productivity change due to output change in the numerator and productivity change due to input change in the denominator. In an Appendix the efficiency measure is extended to include any returns to scale pDDF.

Keywords. Data envelopment analysis; Proportional directional distance function; Efficiency measure; Malmquist productivity index