Galarza, M. (University of Murcia); Giménez, A.( University Miguel Hernández); Amigó, J.M.(University Miguel Hernández); Schuhmann, M.(University Hospital Tuebingen); Gazzeri, R. (San Giovanni Addolorata Hospital); Thomale, U. (Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin); McAllister, J.P. (Washington University School of Medicine)

Background: The flow pattern of the cerebrospinal fluid is probably the most important factor related to obstruction of ventricular catheters during the normal treatment of hydrocephalus. To better comprehend the flow pattern, we have carried out a parametric study via numerical models of ventricular catheters. In previous studies, the flow was studied under steady and, recently, in pulsatile boundary conditions by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in three-dimensional catheter models. Objective: This study aimed to bring in prototype models of catheter CFD flow solutions as well to introduce the theory behind parametric development of ventricular catheters. Methods: A preceding study allowed deriving basic principles which lead to designs with improved flow patterns of ventricular catheters. The parameters chosen were the number of drainage segments, the distances between them, the number and diameter of the holes on each segment, as well as their relative angular position. Results: CFD results of previously unreleased models of ventricular catheter flow solutions are presented in this study. Parametric development guided new designs with better flow distribution while lowering the shear stress of the catheters holes. High-resolution 3D printed catheter solutions of three models and basic benchmark testing are introduced as well. Conclusions: The next generation of catheter with homogeneous flow patterns based on parametric designs may represent a step forward for the treatment of hydrocephalus, by possibly broadening their lifespan. © 2017, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany.